Definitions of Darkness

Relevant scripture:  2 Peter 1:19

atheism – “disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods.  This found at Google: atheism.”  This found at Google: atheism.

naturalism – “a philosophical viewpoint according to which everything arises from natural properties and causes, and supernatural or spiritual explanations are excluded or discounted.”  This found at Google: naturalism.

philosophical naturalism – “the doctrine that the natural world is all there is. It is also called metaphysical naturalism and ontological naturalism.”  See this and more at Conservapedia: Philosophical naturalism.

methodological naturalism – “a strategy for studying the world, by which scientists choose not to consider supernatural causes – even as a remote possibility.”  See this and more at Conservapedia – Methodological naturalism.

secularism – “a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education. The principles of separation of church and state and of keeping religion out of the public school system are an example of secularism.”  Found at secularism.

scientism – “belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most “authoritative” worldview or the most valuable part of human learning – to the exclusion of other viewpoints.”  This and more found at Wikipedia: Scientism.


polytheism – “the belief in or worship of more than one god.”  Found at Google: polytheism.  Polytheism dominated the thinking of antiquity, but holds no sway in modernity.  I include it in this post only for making that point that “darkness” as defined by the Scriptures took different form in biblical times than we see it taking since.

References to New Testament Persons Outside the Bible

(These could be called extra-biblical or extrabiblical sources.)

Wikipedia article:  List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources

John the Baptist is mentioned by Josephus.



James the brother of Jesus is mentioned by Josephus.


Christ in the Old Testament

Here is a list of books which demonstrate how Jesus Christ is found in the Old Testament.  I have only read a few of them, and those varied widely in benefit.  I’ve made brief comments on some of them.  My main goal here is to simply indicate that my seeing Christ in the Old Testament is not an approach unique to me, nor is it even a new one.  Of course, you could know that simply by reading the New Testament (e.g. John 5:39-40; Luke 24:25-27; 44-48).

By the way, a somewhat broader focus which generally leads to the same conclusion (i.e. seeing Christ in the Old Testament) is New Testament Use of the Old Testament.  You can find a few more resources there.

Edmund P. Clowney, The Unfolding Mystery: Discovering Christ in the Old Testament, second edition, 2013.

Nils A. Dahl  –  I know his work mainly through the book by Donald Juel cited below.

R. T. France  –  Jesus and the Old Testament (1971)

Nancy Guthrie, The One Year Book of Discovering Jesus in the Old Testament, 2010.  I’ve not read any of Nancy’s work.  Her promotional literature indicates that her writing is for women but I don’t know if that means primarily or exclusively.

Nancy Guthrie has also written the following series of Bible studies (each one a 10-week outline) which together cover the entire Old Testament:

The Promised One: Seeing Jesus in Genesis, 2011.
The Lamb of God: Seeing Jesus in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, 2012.
The Son of David: Seeing Jesus in the Historical Books, 2013.
The Wisdom of God: Seeing Jesus in the Psalms and Wisdom Books, 2012
The Word of the Lord: Seeing Jesus in the Prophets, 2014.

Donald Juel (1942-2003)  –  Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretation of the Old Testament in Early Christianity.  In his introduction, Juel writes “The thesis of this book can be summarized in a two-part sentence: The beginnings of Christian reflection can be traced to interpretations of Israel’s Scriptures, and the major focus of that scriptural interpretation was Jesus, the crucified and risen Messiah.”  In this book, Juel has an excursus in which he interacts with C. H. Dodd (see New Testament Use of the Old Testament), crediting his book According to the Scriptures as having “had an enormous impact on the direction of NT scholarship.”

Brian Kachelmeier, “Christ in the Old Testament” (a podcast series)

Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., The Messiah in the Old Testament, 1995.  I’ve read this book and recommended it to those who are interested in it; Dr. Kaiser is an excellent teacher.

David Limbaugh, The Emmaus Code: Finding Jesus in the Old Testament, 2015.  Though I have not read this book, Limbaugh is a reliable Christian author.

Sally Lloyd-Jones, The Jesus Storybook Bible: Every Story Whispers His Name, 2007.  This is a children’s storybook and I’ve heard Christian parents recommend it highly.

David Murray, Jesus on Every Page: 10 Simple Ways to Seek and Find Christ in the Old Testament, 2013.

J. Barton Payne, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy: The Complete Guide to Scriptural Predictions and Their Fulfillment, 1973, see specifically “Prophecies with Personal Reference to Christ” in the Old Testament, p. 665-668.  The relevant material takes up only four pages of a 754-page book.

Stanley E. Porter, Editor, The Messiah in the Old and New Testaments, 2007.  The Amazon page for this book indicates that it is a transcription of a lecture series.  The reviews are few and less than glowing.

Michael Williams, How to Read the Bible through the Jesus Lens, 2012.  This book disappointed me because its focus on, and revelation of Jesus, did not meet my expectations…but perhaps my expectations were more the problem than the book.

Christopher J. H. Wright, Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament, second edition, 2014.

Notes on the Verisimilitude of the New Testament

My post Craig Evans on the Reliability of the Bible.  It contains a link to a transcript of an interview with Evans titled “Is the Bible Reliable?”  (The article does not, however, contain the word “verisimilitude.”)

YouTube video Bart Ehrman & Craig Evans 2012 Debate P1 (start at 14:04).  Herein, Dr. Evans describes various aspects of verisimilitude in the New Testament.

Facebook post by Neil Shenvi on The frequency of first names in the biblical accounts matches the actual frequency of names in 1st century Palestine.  Neil told me that he derived this information from R. Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses. Eerdmans (2006), p. 85-88.  Neil also recommended this YouTube video lecture by Dr. Peter J. Williams (Warden of Tyndale House in the UK):  New Evidences the Gospels were Based on Eyewitness Accounts (total time 53:45).

The Wikipedia article Language of Jesus identifies numerous Aramaic words found in the Greek New Testament (e.g. Abba, mammon, hosanna, Gethesemane).  Most Bible scholars believe that Aramaic was the language used by Jesus and His disciples because it was the common language of the cities and regions in which they lived and traveled.  Greek was the lingua franca of the broader world at that time.  Therefore, finding some Aramaic words sprinkled throughout documents written in Greek is just what you would expect of a first-century Mediterranean-wide social movement that originated in Palestine.